© Alex Vargas, Chestnut Munia, L. a. sinensis, showing an all-chestnut belly. A medium-sized munia with a very large, pale blue or whitish bill, mostly chestnut-colored body, and a hood that is typically black but can be brown. It has also been successfully introduced to the southeastern Hawaiian Islands. scJsHost+ All of the species of estrildid finches that occur in North American are introduced species established from populations of captive birds. Bishop Museum, Honolulu, Hawaii. It has also been successfully introduced to the southeastern Hawaiian Islands. (Manas National Park, Assam, India; November 13, 2016.) Chestnut Munia (Lonchura atricapilla). Its preferred habitats include open grasslands and cultivated areas. In such cases the key features are the belly pattern and coloration of the flanks. The sexes are similar. Christie, and E. de Juana, eds.). (Tambun, Sulawesi, Indonesia; September 8, 2005.) Chestnut Munia Hickam Air Force Base, HI 2012 Canary Birds Creatures Little Birds Canary Bird Species Bird Watching Animals Africa Pets Crithagra mozambicus (Yellow-fronted canary, Yellow-eyed canary) But several sources of confusion remain—most emanate from India, where both species (or forms) are native: A portion of the Tricolored Munia population is variably intermediate in appearance. This species forages for grass seeds in © Shekar Vishvanath. Instead, it appears that one form out-competes and eliminates the other, which is consistent with their being different species that remain genetically intact and have divergent adaptive success. In this photo, the flanks appear somewhat paler than the upperparts, but part of this impression is due to strong lighting. Yale University Press, New Haven. It was formerly considered conspecific with the closely related tricoloured munia, but is now widely recognized as a separate species. The waxbills and mannikins are members of this bird family. Also known as Chestnut Mannikin, or Black-headed Munia. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2018: e.T22719837A131885437. Members of this family have filled a variety of seed eating niches, including that of bamboo seeding events; an unpredictable occurrence that happens once during a bamboo plant’s life. © Paul van Giersbergen, Chestnut Munia, L. a. jagori, with darker rufous-chestnut rump and bright orange tail. A Guide to the Birds of the West Indies. In Thailand, it is locally common in marshes from Bangkok to Prachuap Khiri Khan, and in a few interior wetland areas. (Namlea, Buru, Indonesia; January 27, 2011.) (Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Borneo, Malaysia; May 1, 2014.) Lonchura atricapilla rubroniger 3. The Estrildid Finches are one of the one hundred eighteen families of birds in the order PASSERIFORMES (pronounced pas-ser-i-FOR-meez); a large taxonomic order that also includes the shrikes, the gnatcatchers, and the wrens. ), Chestnut Munia, L. a. atricapilla—note concolor flanks and underparts—the belly patch is well-defined, which suggests Tricolored, but it would be out of range. Chestnut Munia Lonchura atricapilla A 0.50 Key: ST Status A Alien – Introduced to the Hawaiian Islands by humans IM Indigenous Migrant – Native but not restricted to the Hawaiian Islands, migratory, non-breeder in Hawaii © Ingo Waschkies, Chestnut Munia, L. a. atricapilla, ventral view showing a well-defined black belly patch. Chestnut Munia varies widely in belly color and pattern, both regionally and individually. 1998. Additional introduced populations have been reported from the West Indies, but they do not appear to be well established. Some of these individuals may be hybrids, some may be naturally aberrant. Lonchura atricapilla deignani 6. Tricolored Munia, showing its characteristic underparts pattern and coloration. (Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Borneo, Malaysia; May 1, 2014.) Note that some subspecies of Chestnut—mainly jagori of the Philippines and Indonesia—can show a crisply defined black belly, but the shape and extent of the patch usually differs and these subspecies rarely, if ever, overlap with Tricolored. (Luzon, Philippines; April 2, 2013.) The Chestnut Mannikin has chestnut brown plumage, wings, tail; black head; gray bill, Image by: 1) DIck Daniels - Kauai, Hawaii 2) Neko Katya 3) Johnny_Wee 4) Aurelien_Lequoy Mannikin,_Chestnut-breasted also Chestnut-breasted Munia Lonchura castaneothorax Found: Australia birds! http://hbs.bishopmuseum.org/birds/rlp-monograph/. Raffaele, H., J. Wiley, O. Garrido, A. Keith, and J. Raffaele. © Luis Mario Arce, Chestnut Munia, L. a. sinensis, an unusually reddish individual with concolor rump and tail. It ends with a series of very quiet slurred notes, also described as bill-snaps. (Koror, Palau; June 18, 2019.) As a result, most references to the distributions of the two species do not reflect their current status. The reuse or copying of bird calls in this database is strictly forbidden2. Chestnut Munia is solid bright chestnut with a solid black head, and a bright silver bill - not dull grayish like your bird - and it also differs in shape, being bigger headed and bigger billed than your bird. Princeton University Press, Princeton, N.J. Restall, R. 1996. It has also been successfully introduced to the southeastern Hawaiian Islands. © Poshien Chien, Chestnut Munia, L. a. formosana, with a brownish hood and blurry-edged blackish belly patch —note light-orange tail. They typically occur in habitats similar to those of their native range; open marsh or grassy areas. (Makassar, Sulawesi, Indonesia; May 4, 2005.) Adult birds have are brown with a chestnut-colored throat and a dark brown face. Also common in Hawaii, where it is often found in open grassy areas, including suburban lawns, on Kauai, Oahu, and Maui. pageTracker._trackPageview(); Bird Call Credits: The Macaulay Library of Natural Sounds at the Cornell Lab of Ornithology. Spring Hawaii, Page 4 countryside here may also turn up Japanese Bush-Warbler, White-rumped Shama, Hwamei, Chestnut Munia, Red-crested Cardinal, Western Meadowlark, Northern Mockingbird, and others. (Bang Poo, Bangkok, Thailand; July 8, 2012.) (Bantimurung Bulusaraung National Park, Sulawesi, Indonesia; July 21, 2016.) © Apisit Wilaijit, Chestnut Munia, L. a. jagori, with a blackish-brown hood and extensive but irregular black belly patch. The rest of its underparts (i.e., the flanks, sides, and breastband) are typically white, but can also be any of a range of other colors including yellow, tan, cinnamon, rufous, and several shades in between. © Ashok Kumar Das, Chestnut Munia, L. a. sinensis, a pale-brown individual—note rustier rump and bright orange tail. © Raj Kamal Phukan, Chestnut Munia, L. a. formosana, showing characteristically concolor flanks and upperparts—this individual also has a brownish hood, which is rarely, if ever, seen on Tricolored. A small, plump reddish brown finch with a black head and thick silvery-blue bill. Some add to the confusion by using the name Tricolored Munia to refer to the collective. In other parts of their range, though, some species such as the beautiful Gouldian Finch and localized Java Sparrow, are threatened by habitat loss and capture for the pet trade. © Luke Seitz, Chestnut Munia, L. a. atricapilla, a dark chestnut individual with a well-defined black belly patch. Most of these birds show the pattern of Tricolored but the coloration of Chestnut—and in some cases field identification is difficult. February 29 © Tony Iwane, Chestnut Munia, L. a. jagori, with extensive, well-defined black belly patch. Introduced to several islands in the tropical Pacific. (Fort Rotterdam, Selatan, Sulawesi; September 17, 2017.) (Palu, Sulawesi, Indonesia; August 24, 2008.) "https://secure." (Penampang, Sabah, Borneo, Malaysia; January 13, 2013.) Many individuals show a slightly darker hood that is limited to the head and neck. The Estrildidae (pronounced es-TRIL-duh-dee) family, which includes the waxbills, contains one hundred and forty-one species in twenty-nine genera mostly found in tropical regions of Africa, Asia, and Australia. "statcounter.com/counter/counter_xhtml.js'>"); (Accessed July 12, 2019.). (Bosipota, Hooghly, West Bengal, India; December 30, 2018.) Chestnut Munia, L. a. jagori, a dark-brown individual with a characteristically blurry-edged blackish belly. pink!". Version 2. (See examples below. Lonchura atricapilla jagori 8. (Huajiang Wild Duck Nature Park, Taipei, Taiwan; February 3, 2016.) © David and Nancy Massie, Chestnut Munia, L. a. formosana, with a brown hood and blurry-edged blackish belly patch. They occur together in West Bengal, western Bangladesh, formerly and perhaps still westward on the Ganges River plain in northern India and Nepal (where Tricolored has apparently displaced Chestnut), in northwestern South America (western Ecuador and Colombia), and possibly on some Caribbean islands—though most if not all recently documented records from the West Indies appear to be Tricolored. It has an undulating flight. In atricapilla, the subspecies that occurs naturally with Tricolored, very few individuals, if any, show the same belly pattern as Tricolored. © Paul van Giersbergen. Island Heritage Publishing, Waipahu, Hawaii. Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, N.Y. http://www.ebird.org. BirdLife International. Lonchura atricapilla selimbauensis 9. © Kama Jaya Shagir. The relationship between Tricolored and Chestnut Munias ( Lonchura malacca and L. atricapilla ) has been fraught with confusion and some disagreement remains over their taxonomic status. © Sarah Lim, Chestnut Munia, L. a. jagori, with blurry-edged blackish belly patch. © Subrato Sanyal, Tricolored Munia, unusual pinkish variant—note contrast between upperparts and much paler flanks. Princeton University Press, Princeton, N.J. eBird. (Jurong Bird Park, Singapore.) It was formerly considered a subspecies of the Tricolored Munia (Lonchura malacca atricapilla) [CDATA[ (Dumaguete, Negros Oriental, Philippines; January 2, 2018.) A group of mannikins has many collective nouns, including a "display" and "storefont" of mannikins. © Sharif Uddin, “Brown-headed Munia,” L. a. brunneiceps, immature. Scaly-breasted Munia # X 22 Nov 2020 Alex Wang Hilo Bayfront Soccer Fields, Hawaii 39. © Nick Athanas, Chestnut Munia, L. a. atricapilla—likely, based on overall coloration and blurred belly patch. Many authoritative references in India continue to treat Tricolored and Chestnut as a single species. This estrildid finch is a resident breeding bird in Bangladesh, Brunei, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Burma, Nepal, Philippines, Singapore, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam and Hawaii. (Yamuna Khader, Wazirabad, Delhi, India; July 23, 2017.) (Poring Hot Springs, Sabah, Borneo, Malaysia; July 4, 2016.) Enjoying Birds in Hawaii: A Birdfinding Guide to the Fiftieth State (Second Edition). ), Payne, R. 2018. © Apisit Wilaijit. © Cherry Wong Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. Lonchura malacca. (Wailua, Kauai; April 6, 2005.) (Barasat, West Bengal, India; May 8, 2016.) (Jorhat, Assam, India; June 4, 2011.) Their sides and breast is gray with dark accents. (Pobitora Wildlife Sanctuary, Assam, India; May 6, 2015.) They forage for these food sources in low vegetation and on the ground. National Institute for Environmental Studies, Invasive Species of Japan, Lonchura atricapilla. The Chestnut Munia is also known as the Black-headed Munia and Black-headed Nun. var sc_invisible=0; It has a large conical bill and blue-gray legs and feet. Most are chestnut or rufous, some are other shades of brown, but the flanks and upperparts match. この鳥は群れを成して移動する"Chestnut Munia" 先客が帰ったら移動しようと待っていたがワタシの方が先に場所を変えた 7/18/08撮影@Ho'omaluhia BG 関連記事 旅立ち (2008/09/15) 山の顔 (2008/08/28) panel (2008/08/23) 別世界 © Zhong Ying Koay, Chestnut Munia, L. a. jagori, showing a shadowed, blurry-edged, blackish belly. (Luzon, Philippines; April 2, 2013.) There are noticeable color differences among and within populations: some are bright chestnut overall, some are browner or darker shades of chestnut, and some are much paler brown or rich rufous-chestnut. Some of these intermediate birds may be hybrids (or back-cross descendants of hybrids) but most are merely color morphs of Tricolored. There are thirteen species of Estrildidae in five genera that occur in North America (including the Hawaiian Islands). Members of this family are often plumaged in attractive patterns of brown, white, and gray with black barring or spotting. Members of the Estrildidae such as the waxbills are known for their colorful bills with a “wax-like” appearance. var pageTracker = _gat._getTracker("UA-129491-1"); Immature Munias are plain Individuals that fit this general description apparently occur to some extent throughout Tricolored’s range, but they may be more numerous in areas of potential overlap with Chestnut. Hawaii Audubon Society. Chestnut Munia: This is a small, mostly uniform chestnut colored estrildid finch with a black head and upper breast. They are native to Southeast Asia and were introduced to Hawaii around 1865. Lonchura atricapilla brunneiceps 7. In Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive (J. del Hoyo, A. Elliott, J. Sargatal, D.A. ". CHESTNUT MANNIKIN English Name:CHESTNUT MANNIKIN,CHESTNUT MUNIA,BLACK-HEADED MUNIA/和名:キンパラ (Penampang, Sabah, Borneo, Malaysia; January 13, 2013.) (Ban Bang Pu, Samut Prakan, Thailand; August 16, 2014.) ! In addition to the unique native species, many introduced birds also call Hawai‘i home. (Accessed July 12, 2019.). (Honolulu, Hawaii; August 18, 2017.) In most such cases, other factors will tend to indicate one species over the other, but perhaps not definitively. Lonchura atricapilla atricapilla 2. Introduced populations are established on Okinawa, Palau, Vanuatu, and Hawaii (Kauai, Oahu, Maui, and the Big Island), and locally in northwestern South America (western Ecuador and the Cauca Valley of Colombia) and coastal Portugal around Lisbon. (Barasat, North 24 Parganas, West Bengal, India; September 4, 2013.) (Fort Rotterdam, Selatan, Sulawesi; September 17, 2017.) (Accessed April 15, 2018. It is believed to have a large, stable population and has been given a conservation rating of Least Concern by the IUCN. © bird.soong, Chestnut Munia, L. a. jagori, juvenile. The existence of apparently intermediate individuals is the original source of confusion over the status of Tricolored and Chestnut Munias, and it causes three persistent problems. © William Hull. var sc_project=965006; © Vinod Puri Goswami. © Michael K. Poulsen, “Brown-headed Munia,” L. a. brunneiceps. © Darren Bellerby, Chestnut Munia, L. a. sinensis, showing an all-chestnut belly. Chestnut Munias, introduced and established in the Southeastern Hawaiian Islands since 1959, have been referred to in the Hawaiian literature as various of the above names (HAS 1967-2005; Berger 1972, 1981; Pyle 1977-2002 Birds of East Asia. document.write(unescape("%3Cscript src='" + gaJsHost + "google-analytics.com/ga.js' type='text/javascript'%3E%3C/script%3E")); © Sharif Uddin, Chestnut Munia, L. a. formosana, immature. Contact call is a loud "pink! Chestnut Munia, L. a. sinensis, showing a blurry-edged blackish belly patch. Tricolored Munia, cinnamon variant, showing characteristic contrast between upperparts and much paler flanks. © Wong Tsu Shi. (Ban Bang Pu, Samut Prakan, Thailand; August 17, 2014.) The Chestnut Munia is a small Estrildid finch that occurs in India, Sri Lanka, and much of southeastern Asia. The Black-headed Munia, Lonchura atricapilla, is also known as Chestnut Muni. “Brown-headed Munia,” L. a. brunneiceps. https://www.hbw.com/node/61195. 鳥 名 キンパラ / 金腹 / Chestnut Munia / Lonchura atricapilla ( スズメ目 / カエデチョウ科 / キンパラ属 ) 仲 間 大きさ L10-12cm /少ない留鳥(移入外来種) 異 名 英名;Chestnut Mannikin 由 来 腹部の白いギ … Some variants of Tricolored Munia are very similar to some Chestnut Munias. In addition, the apparent displacement of Chestnut Munias by Tricolored along the Ganges is facial evidence that the two species do not simply blend into a common gene pool when they come into contact. (Hualien, Taiwan; February 8, 2014.) Often considered conspecific with Tricolored Munia, together comprising the Black-headed Munia (L. malacca), sometimes also including White-capped Munia, but the three are increasingly regarded as separate species. Flank Coloration:  On Chestnut Munia, the flanks and upperparts are consistently concolor, within a few shades of each other. var sc_https=1; var gaJsHost = (("https:" == document.location.protocol) ? "); (Dumaguete, Negros Oriental, Philippines; January 2, 2018.) Pyle, R.L., and P. Pyle. Restall has argued for separating Tricolored and Chestnut Munias based on, among other factors, differences in vocalizations and the gape patterns of nestlings. The Chestnut Munia is a small Estrildid finch that occurs in India, Sri Lanka, and much of southeastern Asia. Texas placed 3 rd with high counts for 95 species, five forms and two exotics, and was followed by Hawaii with 73 species, four forms and three exotics, Arizona 68 species and seven forms, Alaska 34 species and one form © Wong Tsu Shi, Chestnut Munia, L. a. atricapilla, immature. https://www.birdfinding.info/wp-content/uploads/2019/07/XC19628-ChestnutMuniacallsslwsiFarrow.mp3, http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2018-2.RLTS.T22719837A131885437.en, https://www.nies.go.jp/biodiversity/invasive/DB/detail/20220e.html, http://hbs.bishopmuseum.org/birds/rlp-monograph/. The relationship between Tricolored and Chestnut Munias (Lonchura malacca and L. atricapilla) has been fraught with confusion and some disagreement remains over their taxonomic status. Chestnut Munia, L. a. jagori, immature. © Atanu Modak. It has a medium- to pale-brown hood, blackish belly, most resembling the brownest individuals of L. a. formosana, which does not occur with it. (Malim Nawar Wetlands, Perak, Malaysia; January 2, 2019.) Frontiers of Taxonomy: Tricolored and Chestnut Munias. (Laem Pak Bia-Pak Thale, Phetchaburi, Thailand; August 9, 2015.) The Estrildidae are small finches with fairly short tails, short wings, rather short legs with strong feet adapted to perching, and rounded heads with large, stout bills suited to cracking open seeds. © Bill Bacon, “Brown-headed Munia,” L. a. brunneiceps. Song is a series of soft clicks, followed by "weee." Adult males and females are similar in appearance. "); Second, the intrinsic variation within both species is not well depicted in field guides, so there is no adequate reference to help observers reliably identify apparently intermediate individuals. Birdfinding.info ⇒  Uncommon and local across the continental portions of its range, but common in Taiwan, the Philippines, the Malay Peninsula (including Singapore), Sabah, and northern Sulawesi. © Chris Chafer, Chestnut Munia, L. a. formosana, with a brown hood—note bright rusty tail. It feeds mainly on seeds, usually in relatively open habitats, preferring to feed on the ground. (Honolulu, Hawaii; June 17, 2018.) (Bosipota, Hooghly, West Bengal, India; December 30, 2018.) Formerly considered conspecific with Chestnut Munia, together comprising the Black-headed Munia (L. malacca). © Subrato Sanyal, Chestnut Munia, L. a. formosana, showing an extensive, blurry-edged black belly patch. Belly Pattern:  Tricolored Munia consistently shows a crisply defined black belly. It also has been introduced to all the Greater Antilles and Martinique in the Caribbean. © Anwaruddin Choudhury, Chestnut Munia, L. a. formosana, immature. (Batu Kawan Marsh, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia; May 15, 2019.) © George Inocencio, Chestnut Munia, L. a. formosana, with brown hood, rufous-chestnut rump and light-orange tail. Lonchura atricapilla sinensis 4. © Rajesh Kalra, Tricolored Munia, showing its characteristic underparts pattern, but atypical coloration. © Bill Bacon, Chestnut Munia, L. a. atricapilla, immature. 1993. Munias and Mannikins. Martyn Stewart, http://www.naturesound.org, Redmond, Washington USA. Chestnut Munia, L. a. jagori, showing a blackish belly patch with a blurred border. Assortative breeding has also been reported in the wild in both native and introduced populations. (As noted above, the flanks are typically white but can be yellow, tan, cinnamon, rufous, and several shades in between. Chestnut Munia, L. a. jagori—the belly patch is well-defined, but very extensive, making the breastband narrow—and this location is far out of Tricolored’s range. For an account of their variation and guidance on some consistent distinctions to differentiate them in the field, see above. The Chestnut Munia, Lonchura atricapilla, was once the national bird of the Phillipines. (Batu Gajah, Perak, Malaysia; January 10, 2018.) This estrildid finch is a resident breeding bird in Bangladesh, Brunei, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Burma, Nepal, Philippines, Singapore, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam and Hawaii. The chestnut munia, (Lonchura atricapilla) (formerly considered as a subspecies of the tricoloured munia Lonchura malacca atricapilla) also known as black-headed munia, is … First, it appears to be facial evidence of hybridization, which suggests that the two are a single species and therefore not reliably distinguishable, so few observers make the effort. (Honolulu, Hawaii; June 5, 2019.) © Amar-Singh HSS, Chestnut Munia, L. a. atricapilla—note darker, rustier rump and paler, more orange tail. Red Avadavat # 1 22 Nov 2020 41. (Jorhat, Assam, India; June 4, 2011.) "https://ssl." Polytypic species consisting of eight recognized subspecies, including the potentially distinct “Brown-headed Munia” (L. a. brunneiceps). 2019. eBird: An online database of bird distribution and abundance. A medium-sized munia with a very large, pale blue or whitish bill, mostly chestnut-colored body, and a hood that is typically black but can be brown. Bright colors are common in many species with blue, red, purple, and yellow occurring in their plumages, while their bills are often colored red. (Tambun, Sulawesi, Indonesia; September 8, 2005.) Scaly-breasted munia (called Nutmeg manakin in Hawaii; far western Kauai, June 2017) In the evening after a short rain, four species of grass birds (Red avadavat, Scaly-breasted munia, Chestnut munia, and African silverbill) came The parrotfinch species occupy this niche in Asia, Australia, and some Pacific Islands, usually occurring in nomadic flocks that are rarely found away from these rare seeding events. 2005. Often seen in flocks, usually in grassy areas, including lawns, but also marshes and rice paddies; prefers wetter areas than Scaly-breasted Munia. (Tawau, Sabah, Borneo, Malaysia; September 6, 2006.) With this knowledge, most clearly observed individuals can be reliably identified. Chestnut Munia: Resident on several southeastern Hawaiian Islands. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2018-2.RLTS.T22719837A131885437.en. (Sam Ratulangi University, Manado, Sulawesi, Indonesia; June 21, 2012.) Mutual Publishing, Honolulu, Hawaii. Immature plumages are similar to those of several other munias, warm-brown above and buffy below, some rustier and some more neutral brown. “Brown-headed Munia” (L. a. brunneiceps) is a distinct form that occurs on the southwestern peninsula of Sulawesi and some smaller islands to the east: Kabaena, Muna, Buton, Buru, and reportedly also on the Togian and Banggai Islands (east of central Sulawesi). (Paranaque City, Manila, Philippines; January 20, 2018.) In cases of potential confusion, a crisply defined black belly patch usually indicates Tricolored. © Cherry Wong. (Amphoe Ban Laem, Phetchaburi, Thailand; March 4, 2018.) : "http://www. The species was also introduced to Guam, Jamaica, Palau, Puerto Rico, Hawaii, Vanuatu and Venezuela. 2017. Although they take insects, small seeds and grain make up the bulk of their diet. var scJsHost = (("https:" == document.location.protocol) ? Like other introduced species, estrildid finches are not migratory in North America. Members of the Estrildidae are social birds that often occur in flocks while foraging, some species nesting in loose colonies. This species forages for grass seeds in grasslands, marshes and weedy fields. They are also well known for being kept as pets as they have pleasant calls, attractive plumages, and are easy to care for. Chestnut Munia, L. a. sinensis, showing dark, but not black, belly. (Rajarhat, North 24 Parganas, West Bengal, India; October 27, 2018.) Chestnut Munia, L. a. jagori, showing a blackish belly patch with a blurred border. The chestnut munia has several subspecies that are recognized as followed: 1. “Brown-headed Munia” (L. a. brunneiceps) reportedly overlaps with L. a. jagori on southern Sulawesi without known interbreeding and has different vocalizations, so it may prove to be a separate species. : "http://www. In India, it formerly occurred west to Haryana and northern Rajasthan, but the Tricolored Munia has largely displaced it from northern India and Nepal such that it is now scarce or absent west of West Bengal. This individual is unusually pale and was identified as a cinnamon morph Tricolored. Lonchura atricapilla obscura 10. Hawaii’s Birds (Sixth Edition). Cf. (Baruipur, South 24 Parganas District, West Bengal, India; November 25, 2018.) © David and Nancy Massie, Chestnut Munia, L. a. formosana, with brown hood and blurry-edged blackish belly patch. The Chestnut Munia is a small Estrildid finch that occurs in India, Sri Lanka, and much of southeastern Asia. Third, the lack of clarity leads to inconsistent field identification of those apparently intermediate individuals, so a large portion of observer reports are simply unreliable. //]]> Double Positives:  In a few cases, a confusing Tricolored / Chestnut Munia has both a crisply defined black belly and a match or near-match between the upperparts and the flanks. Hawaiian Duck # 6 22 Nov 2020 Jennifer Rothe Salt Pond Beach Park ponds, Kauai Show Details 40. © Raj Kamal Phukan, Chestnut Munia, L. a. jagori, a dark-brown individual with a blurry-edged blackish belly. As a result, many observers there do not attempt to differentiate between them in their field observations. In North America, the estrildid finches are introduced species that are not considered to be threatened. https://www.nies.go.jp/biodiversity/invasive/DB/detail/20220e.html. (Esmeraldas, Ecuador; January 27, 2014.) © Chris Chafer, Chestnut Munia, L. a. formosana, with brown hood and pale tail. Since the mid-1990s the trend has been to recognize them as separate, following Robin Restall, who wrote the most comprehensive reference work on munias worldwide (Munias and Mannikins, 1996). The chestnut munia is a small gregarious bird which feeds mainly on grain and other seeds. They are also known as spotted munia or ricebird. Female's call is higher pitched. Tricolored Munia. (Accessed July 12, 2019.). document.write("