Malthus was among classical economists who attempted to explain the relationship. the growth rate of increase in total output, must be greater than the population growth rate. The theory was simple: given that there is a fixed quantity of land, population growth will eventually reduce the amount of resources that each individual can consume, ultimately … (2019, December 21). It refers to the number of people living within one square kilometer. Further, additional mouths in the low income families tend to encourage people to work more. (2019) 'Relationship between Population and Economic Growth'. ☼ So, it became necessary to control population growth. However, empirical evidence suggests that technological change—or the so-called green revolution in agriculture in different LDCs—has greatly offset the effects of diminishing returns in agriculture and the spectre of food problem and its aftermath (huger, famine, etc.,) in most of these countries has virtually vanished. The net effect may be favourable to the country. Thirdly, an arithmetic increase in population permits in reaping economies of scale in production, greater division of labour, extension of the market, etc. Plato (427-347 B.C.) Supply-side factors supporting Indian growth and development. Their average rate of population growth is about 2.2 percent per year, but there are some countries where population growth is 3 percent or more. Their argument is based on the law of diminishing returns in agriculture. The Economic Development track will engage students in a variety of aspects and analyses of how and why the process of development in some places gets underway and in other places tends to stall. But the classical economists, Especially T.R. Murthi, M & Drèze, J 2001, ‘Fertility, Education, and Development: Evidence from India’, Population and Development Review, vol. Population growth suppresses the living standards whereby rapid population growth can reduce per headland, and this exerts a lot of pressure on the fixed amount of land (Karim & Amin, 2018). 100-130. CONCLUSIONS: International economics argues about economic interdependence among countries. There is an extensive literature on these relationships but little consensus on the actual effects of population on economic growth (Heady & Hodge, 2009). GDP is a measure of the national income / national output and national expenditure. First, all problems of levels of living, inequality and poverty are not to be necessarily linked with high population growth. But anti-Mathusians talk in a different vein. He described it as ‘the most delicate and difficult issue of our era… It is overlaid with emotion. For instance, countries that experience high rates of income inequalities exhibit fertility discrepancies between poor uneducated people and rich and literate people (O’Sullivan 2003, p. 57). IvyPanda. Weil, D 2009, Economic Growth, Pearson-Addison Wesley: New Jersey. Start from the classical period to the recent literature on endogenous growth and development. However, fertility rates are dependent on incomes, literacy and inequalities that typify an economy. But Malthusians and neo-Malthusians think otherwise. GDP is a measure of the national income / national output and national expenditure. We will then present two broad views on the links between population growth and economic development Œa pessimistic or fatalistic view inspired by Thomas Malthus and its modern disciples (such as Paul Ehrlich), and an optimistic view advocated by economists and demographers such as Julian Simon, Simon Kuznets and Esther Boserup Œ, and discuss the empirical evidence. Brain drain can threaten the development process of poor nations by leaving them without valuable skilled labor. The relationship between population growth and economic development may be summarised in the words of Robert McNamara—the past president of the World Bank. As Chapter 4 showed, in Europe, Japan, and North America economic growth has been accom-panied by moderate population growth, which may have stimulated demand, encouraged techno-logical … The relationship between population growth and economic development has been a recurrent theme in economic analysis since at least 1798 when Thomas Malthus famously argued that population growth would depress living standards in the long run. However, in some cities, rapid growth leads to skyrocketing housing prices and unmanageable traffic. Thus, both demographers and development economists emphasize on the population growth–economic development nexus. The greatest and real obstacle to development is underdevelopment. suggested that the member of citizens of a country should be kept fixed at 5,040 on the ground that this number is divisible by any number from 1 to 12 except 11. Conclusion. Of particular interest is the rate of population growth vis-à-vis economic growth and development. This is IvyPanda's free database of academic paper samples. The study reveals that although a steadily growing population might seem to be an obstacle to a country’s economic development, most of the countries have accepted the increase in population as a blessing. Population Growth and Economic Development in Pakistan. Carbon dioxide emission is at its highest level. But is this growth always a good thing? 19: 1-37. Abstract: The connection between population growth and economic development has been a much debated topic ever since the world population passed the two billion mark. Relationship between Population and Economic Growth. Relationship : A complex interrelated system, many variables are associated with both birth rates and rates of economic growth Evidence: Sparse, inconsistent and inconclusive, suggesting that both arrows are working in the system Development Population size & rate of growth 4 Population growth has been a favourable factor in stimulating growth in many a country in; last two centuries, when vast areas remained largely unsettled. Different Views on the Role of Population Growth: Population growth plays a conflicting role in the development process of a country. Nonetheless, population growth does not affect the rate of economic growth in steady states (Jayati 2013, p. 76). Thus, the migration of the productive farm workers in other sectors needs to be attributed to the policy failure and not to the population pressure. Population and economic development 1. Economic development is associated with declining importance of agriculture. Copyright © 2020 - IvyPanda is a trading name of Edustream Technologies LLC, a company registered in Wyoming, USA. Neo-classical theorists such as Solow differentiate various aspects of societies in order to establish accurate correlations and relationships (Thirlwall 1994, p. 132). 60 no 1, pp. Population growth plays a crucial role in every country’s development process. a. They argue that many young children contribute directly to parents’ income by working in farms and off-farm sectors. A population’s growth rate is strongly influenced by the proportions of individuals of particular ages. On the one hand, age structure in industrialized nations is major cause for skewed relationship between population growth and economy (Aliber 2001, p. 36). Before publishing your Articles on this site, please read the following pages: 1. For instance, United Nations Report on global population growth indicates that aging will be a major driver of economic slowdown in many industrialized nations in the world by 2050 (Eastwood & Lipton 2001, p. 33). Neo-Malthusian analysis that high and increasing population density hinders economic development and results in poverty has been demonstrated to be false. Age structure data allow the rate of growth (or decline) to be associated with a population’s level of economic development. The clear indication from the output is that population growth adversely affects the economic development of Bangladesh, which supports the Malthus prediction. Welcome to EconomicsDiscussion.net! By the mid-1700s, Great Britain had developed into a commercial and military powerhouse; meanwhile, the population rose dramatically in Britain’s North American colonies. The interaction of these elements constitutes the process of development. Anyway, empirical research does not confirm the Coale-Hoover thesis. Economic Growth refers to the rise in the value of everything produced in the economy. Various economists classify different nations according to levels of economic development (developed or developing), population density, age -structure and income inequalities in order to establish the apparent correlation. This paper aims to provide additional empirical evidence to the ongoing debate about the impact of population growth on economic development with the Philippines as a case study. In addition, it is essential to mention that a high rate of population growth offsets the risk of increased dependency emanating from the aging population (Kremer & Chen 2002, p. 34-89). 35-78. The World Bank in its 1984 World Develop­ment Report argues: “…there is little doubt that the key to economic growth is people, and through people the advance of human knowledge. It is because of ‘natural limits’ in agriculture population growth would overtake food supply output, thereby leading to famine, hunger, malnutrition, etc. IvyPanda. Aristole (384-322 B.C.) Economic development essentially rests on three pillars: income per capita growth, distribution of the fruits of growth and structural change. However, economic growth stalls in poor and unequal countries due to high rates of poverty and sparse population. Population Growth and Economic Development: A Close View! Wages are higher, so consumption tends to be higher as well. In the long run, ARDL results show that the population growth has a positive and statistically significant impact on economic development. In contrast, a thickly populated country with a small population base such as Sri Lanka seems to be especially handicapped by the all size of its domestic market. 3, pp. Content Guidelines 2. It contains thousands of paper examples on a wide variety of topics, all donated by helpful students. Population growth and economic development has a negative relationship. 3, pp. Economic development - Economic development - Population growth: Still another lesson is the desirability of slowing down the rapid population growth that characterizes most developing countries. This paper examines the evolution of population and economic growth. Lee, D 2003, ‘The Demographic Transition: Three Centuries of Fundamental Change’, Journal of Economic Perspectives, vol. Business activity will be spurred as a consequence. Aalok Ranjan Chaurasia, Economic growth and population transition in China and India 1990–2018, China Population and Development Studies, 10.1007/s42379-020-00067-1, (2020). Economic Growth refers to the rise in the value of everything produced in the economy. Going from bare essentials population tend to buy luxuries than they think they deserve for all the effort they put in at work. population growth and economic development by conducting an exhaustive review of the literature. On the other hand, high population density allows fast and efficient flow of innovation, creativity and technology leading to increase in uptake of modern ways of production (Kelley & Schmidt 2005, p. 56). But the evidence tells a different story. However, this argument is a faulty one. December 21, 2019. https://ivypanda.com/essays/relationship-between-population-and-economic-growth/. Module 3 assignment 1 financial management case study development growth economic essay Population and essay topics on change essay on the book i enjoyed the most. O’Sullivan, A 2003, Economics: Principles in Action, Pearson Prentice Hall: New Jersey. In summary, population growth has a direct relationship with economic growth. And growing incidence of poverty is the root cause of environ­mental degradation. ⏰ Let's see if we can help you! 36 no. Foreign trade and its relationship with economic growth is one of the highly controversial issues in particular, the choice of development strategies in developing countries. 70 no. It increases the dependency ratio, putting a strain on … It can act both as a stimulus and as an impediment to growth and development. The US economist Kenneth Boulding made the following statement: “Anyone who believes that exponential growth can go on forever in a finite world is either a madman or an economist.”. One of the first gains a developing nation can achieve is improvements in such basics as the provision of clean drinking water, improved sanitation, and public health measures such as vaccination against childhood diseases. Potentialities for development are adequate. Meier, G 1995, Leading Issues in Economic Development, Oxford University Press: New York. Share Your PDF File However, this must not be attributed to a mismatch between a high population growth and food supply. It alludes to considerable rise in per-capita national product, over a period, i.e. Need a custom Analytical Essay sample written from scratch by No one should exaggerate either the beneficial or the unfavourable effects of population growth on economic development. Population growth adversely affects their economic development in the following ways, first faster population growth makes the choice more scarce between higher consumption now and the investment needed to bring higher consumption in the future. Since economic growth depends on rate of saving and investment … It was believed that if you want to lower the fertility rate, then improvements must be made in mortality. With the two schools of thought expounding polar views regarding the impact of population growth on economic development, and the fact that the findings of the empirical studies have not led to a definite conclusion on the subject, the current study chose the Philippines as a case study to examine the long-run relationship between population and economic development. The two major structural variables negatively associated with rate of population increase are wealth and socialism, and the major determinants of economic growth are level of economic development and economic … Write an essay about editorial youm e azadi essay in urdu for class 6 how to write a conclusion to an essay what's the sat essay out of. If you are the copyright owner of this paper and no longer wish to have your work published on IvyPanda. Various concerns have been expressed about the ability of the world economy to sustain the ever-expanding world population. This logic assumes that the expenditures on human capital are unproductive. For 2017, the value of all goods and services produced by Wisconsin workers was $313 billion. On the other hand, age structures in developing countries impede economic progress in third world. In recent years, as agriculture is becoming more and more unprofitable, the issue of engaging surplus labour has become a concern to the Government of India. Secondly, population growth must involve the quality of life, and not the quantity perse. And more income and employment will be created in the process. A fast-growing population of working age. But, anti­thesis to this is the Malthusian version which regards population growth as the number one barrier to economic development. Solow, M 1956, ‘A Contribution to the Theory of Economic Growth’, Quarterly Journal of Economics, vol. The whole world is burning fossil fuels to drive the growth economy. Such conflicting roles suggest that the relationship between population and economic development is intricate, complex and interesting. For 2017, the value of all goods and services produced by Wisconsin workers was $313 billion. China’s Economic Growth and Development China is presently the world’s largest economy in relation to its population of 1.3 billion. A growing population, within a limited geographical area, usually puts heavy pressure on the existing factor endowments, especially natural resources of the country. Various economic models have attempted to establish the relationship between different demographic dynamics and economic growth (Barro 1991, p. 87). It helps economic development and it retards economic development. Population density is another parameter that theorists use to establish correlation between population growth and economic growth. Such gains can dramatically reduce disease and death rates. It is important to highlight that high population density may also lead to environmental degradation and other effects of overutilization of resources. It alludes to considerable rise in per-capita national product, over a period, i.e. The investment-diversion effect states that, because of rapid population growth a country’s scarce resources get diverted away to the so-called unproductive sectors of health, education and social services from the more productive growth- oriented sectors. But if economic development can slow population growth, it can also increase it. When population grows faster than GNP, the standard of living of the people does not improve. Indeed, this argument is empirically important in addition to theoretical reasoning. Looking around, it’s apparent that there’s only so much land to go around, and this also extends to the water we drink and the food we consume. While neo-classical theorists classify states and nations in order to understand interplay between demographic dynamics and economy, other models use age structure of a nation to predict the effects of population growth/decrease in an economy. The rationale is that population growth will exert pressure on already scarce economic resources. 4, pp. This paper discussed the ecological and economic profile of the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of China from a past, present and future perspective and analyzed the condition of the natural resources and economic development pattern. The following are the economic factors affected due to increased population. But, to show how rapid population growth retards economic development, it is necessary to mention that by economic development we mean not only increase in national income (GNP) or per capita income, but also reduction in unemployment as a result of the growth of employment opportunities and reduction in poverty and inequalities of income. Consequently, these countries suffer badly from a variety of environmental hazards. After the rapid economic change, the population growth is described as an 'explosion'. In developing areas of the world, population growth can seem to have a positive effect on local economies. 227-258. Sustaining economic growth and development requires that resource needs be met for future growth requirements in Xinjiang. the growth rate of increase in total output, must be greater than the population growth rate. Barro, R 1991, ‘Economic Growth in a Cross Section of Countries’, Quarterly Journal of Economics, vol. You can view samples of our professional work here. Thirdly, Mathusians are convinced that population growth badly affects food supplies. Diminishing returns may become a serious problem if population growth is rapid. Colonial Growth and Expansion. Anyway, the impact .on household saving can be negative, negligible or positive—the issue needs to be settled by empirical investigation. Gill (1992) examined the relationship between the population growth and economic development for the economy of India. Authors; Authors and affiliations; Amarjit Kaur ; Chapter. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must. While majority of the population has reached adulthood in industrialized countries, children and young people constitute highest majority of developing countries’ population. When the number of dependents or the ratio of consumers (non- producers) to producers increase, there occurs a diversion of income from savings to consumption and a fall in per capita income. Further, they argue that there is no population bomb in these countries. also argued in the same vein. Economic growth in the UK Economic growth measures an increase in Real GDP (real output). Thirlwall, P 1994, Growth and Development, Basingstoke: Macmillan Press: Basingstoke. 92 Downloads; Part of the A Modern Economic History of Southeast Asia book series (MEHSA) Abstract. Appearances can be deceiving essay macbeth sat essay books to read growth Population and development economic essay. Hunger and famine, according to A. Sen, is due to ‘entitlement failure’ and not the food availabilities as such. A potentially expanding market may stimulate entrepreneurs to invest more and more in capital goods and machinery. In particular, Solow claims that high population growth in a steady state is likely to reduce disposable income and income per capital. Kremer, M & Chen, D 2002, ‘Income Distribution Dynamics with Endogenous Fertility’, Journal of Economic Growth, vol. Essay on Population Growth is Good for a Country – Essay 3 (400 Words) Introduction. According to Murthi & Drèze (2001, p. 45), a rise in population growth in developing countries implies that the economy will benefit from diverse workforce and vibrant labor market. However, Mlthus ‘ argument came under severe attack at the hands of Karl Marx and F. Engles. December 21, 2019. https://ivypanda.com/essays/relationship-between-population-and-economic-growth/. This chapter opens with a review and synthesis of our conclusions on the expected effects of a decline in the population grown rate that works through these mechanisms. However, ‘prosperity in an economy is no… In past decades, population rate grew very steadily, with both high fertility and high mortality. Malthus asserts that countries with low population density experience many challenges (Kelley & Schmidt 1995, p. 67). But whether population growth is respon­sible for unemployment problem cannot be said definitively since no such statistical strict correla­tion is observed. The myth of over-population causing underdevelop­ment should be given up in any analysis of eco­nomic development. Retrieved from https://ivypanda.com/essays/relationship-between-population-and-economic-growth/. Before the industrial revolution, the world's population stood at around 1 billion, not more. The literature on population and economic growth is about as old as economic … In countries that have adopted labor-intensive model of production, population growth boosts productivity. Conclusion: Globalisation, Economic Growth, and Labour. He desired that the country’s population must not exceed beyond certain level. When talking about development, we usually refer to the economic development of a city, country, or even the whole world. Bourguignon, F 2001, The Distributional Effects of Growth: Micro vs. Macro Approaches, Delta Pres: Paris. In fact, it is the technology that determines the absorption of unemployed labour force. Though over population is a worldwide problem but still in some countries population is below the required rate which is also a serious issue as in those countries less people means less manpower to support and work for the development of that country. Malithus, sounded an alarm bell of rising population growth in a country. This does not only boost economic growth but also enhances capital investments. Many theories … Population growth affects world development. Malthus asserts that social expenditure by government on young age structure at the expense of capital investment will also stall the economy (Weil 2009, p. 102). Secondly, a growing population means a growing market for most goods and services and we know that division of labour is limited by the extent of the market. One second important downside has to do with the “brain drain” effect than usually comes with emigration. Economic growth in the UK Economic growth measures an increase in Real GDP (real output). IvyPanda. Our mission is to provide an online platform to help students to discuss anything and everything about Economics. Still others find that the effects vary with the level of a country’s development, the source or nature of the population growth… While some economists postulate that economic development slows down in periods of high population growth rates, others argue that high population growth boosts economic growth. The current ecological crisis is caused by human economic activity or anthropogenic. Finally, neo-Malthusians argue that excessive population growth and massive poverty in LDCs have greatly damaged the ecological balance by deforestation and land degradation. Over time, this growth will eventually lead to starvation and thirst, he said, leading to his … * growth but not necessarily development. It is not to be accepted that a slowing down of population increase might contribute substantially to our development prospects. Format: PDF and MS Word (DOC) pages = 65 ₦ 3,000 This paper discusses such factors as age structure, level of economic development, population density and rates of poverty in addition to their impacts on economy. While many economists argue that high population growth rates in developing countries have a counterproductive effect on the economy, it is apparent that increase in population is important for developing countries. 56-189. Eastwood, R & Lipton, M 2001, ‘Pro-poor Growth and Pro-growth Poverty Reduction: Meaning, Evidence, and Policy Implications’, Asian Development Review, vol. It is said that a rapid population growth causes an increase in dependency ratio—a high ratio of non-working population to working wage people or active population. With knowledge of this age structure, population growth can be more accurately predicted. This is when the economy becomes more productive, when they are enjoying prosperity. The relationship between population and economic growth has many perspectives. professional specifically for you? At the outset, innovation and technology tend to spread slowly owing low contact between social institutions, individuals and economic institutions (Meier 1995, p. 34). It is subtle. "Relationship between Population and Economic Growth." The way an economy is organised is rather ‘inherently suicidal’. On the some vein, the then Prime Minister Mr. Pitt of England dec­lared in the 18th century: “A man could enrich his country by producing a number of children, even if the whole family were paupers.” All these suggest that not only there is no conflict between population growth and economic development but also an increase in population is necessary for increase in wealth and development. In this context, W. Beckerman has made the following comment on the relationship among population, economic development and pollution: The UW System economic activity in 2016-17 amounts to 7.7% of the total economic activity in the state. Disclaimer Copyright, Share Your Knowledge Population growth and economic development, this relationship is a major issue from years. The followers of this view point argue based on population-poverty cycle theory. Exogenous drivers include population growth, economic development, technical change, and two alternative deforestation policies. Besides, governments of such societies face constraints in provision of public goods such as infrastructure and electricity due to minimal and expensive interaction with the rest of the world (Solow 1956, p. 67). His findings supported the conclusion reached by Dawson and Tiffin (1998). Population Growth and Economic Development Main Question: Causation ? IvyPanda. Research highlights We examine global food production development until 2030 with a partial equilibrium model of agriculture and forestry. To that end, it is important to highlight that the relationship between population and economic growth has elicited heated debate (Weil 2009, p. 71). The association amid population and economic development in developing countries is of great concern in the contemporary past. Kohler, P & Kohler, I 2002, ‘Fertility Decline in Russia in the Early and Mid-1990s: The Role of Economic Uncertainty and Labor Market Crises’, European Journal of Population, vol. Nor is population growth in itself the main cause of natural resource problems—air pollution, soil degradation, even food availability.”. To the Greek philosophers, about 2,500 years ago, population growth was undesirable as it adversely affects economic development. The size of the UW System economic impact can be reported in terms of its proportion of the entire amount of economic activity in Wisconsin. 3255 words (13 pages) Essay . d. neither growth nor development. 67 no. The rationale is that population grows in geometrical way while productivity improves in an arithmetic rate. So what is sauce for a goose may not be the sauce for a gander! It may also lead to deforestation and increased degradation of natural resources. The rate of growth of GDP per capita is calculated from data on GDP and people for the initial and final periods included in the analysis of the analyst.. Conclusion. 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